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The pectoral girdle connects the upper limb (arm) bones to the axial skeleton and consists of the left and right clavicles and left and right scapulae.

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1. Robinson & Smith, Biblical Researches in Palestine , 1838, Crocher & New Breuster, 1856; Man Jerusalem and Zein Gerlande Guersloch , . Kenyon, Jerusalem Excavating 3000 Years of History, London, 1974; The City of Jerusalem, London, 1974; De Vogue, Le Temple de Jerusalem, A. Vincent & Steve; Jerusalem de L'Ancien Testament, Vols. 1-4; C. Warren & . Conder, The Survey of Western Palestine , Jerusalem, London, 1894. 2. See map of Jerusalem, the Old City. scale 1:2500, The Department of Surveys 1985. 3. "Mishna Middot," Chapter B, paragraph A. 4. By assuming that the length of the cubit was 50 cm. Later we will relate to the difference opinions of the cubit. 5. Josephus Flavius, Early History of the Jews (translated into Hebrew by A. Shaleet), Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, 1978, Vol. 15, Ch. 11, Par. 3 (hereinafter: "Early History"). 6. Ibid., Par. 3 and 5. 7. G. Delman, Annual Publication of Yeshiva Etz Haim , Jerusalem, 1873. Shick C. Der in Jerusalem 1890, criticism of this system see Koren, Temple Court of God, p. 306. 8. E. Yadin, "The First Temple," Book of Jerusalem , (pub. In Hebrew), 1955, pp. 176-190. M. Yadin, "The First Temple," Book of Jerusalem , (pub. in Hebrew), 1955, pp. 397, 415 (hereinafter: Avi Yonah, "The Temple House"). Tikuchinsky, The Holy City and the Temple , (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1969, pp. 11-15. Z. Koren , The Courts of God's Temple (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1977, pp. 301-306. (hereinafter: Koren, The Courts of God's Temple ). 9. A. Kaufman, "The Second Temple, its Shape and its Location," The Temple Mount, it's Location and it's Borders ; Lecture Notes; April 1975, Jerusalem , 1975, pp. 39-46. 10. G. Kornfield, The Temple Mount is in the South of the Dome of the Rock , Tel Aviv, 1987. J. Ferguson, The Temples of the Jews and Other Buildings in the Harim Area of Jerusalem , London, 1878, plate VII. 11. Koren, The Courts of God's Temple , pp. 274-276. 12. M. Ben-Dov, The Dig at the Temple Mount , (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1872, p. 102 (hereinafter: Ben Dov, The Dig at the Temple Mount ). 13. Warren, The Underground Jerusalem (translated by Shulamit Harran), Tel-Aviv, 1987, p. 67
(hereinafter: Warren, The Underground Jerusalem ). 14. - There are many theories concerning the lengths of the cubit, but we can assume that the cubit was 50 cm.+/- 20%. For the this article we have chosen the cubit as follows: a) 1 cubit = cm, which is the length of the Roman cubit. b) 1 cubit = cm. the length of the cubit according to Warren (Warren, The Underground Jerusalem , p. 67) c) 1 cubit = 56 cm. the length of the cubit according to the dimensions of the Barclay Gate (Z. Koren, The Courts of God's Temple , p. 273) d) 1 cubit = cm. (Tikuchinsky, The Holy City and the Temple , Part 4, p. 6) In order to make things simpler we can assume that the cubit that was used by J. Flavius and mentioned in the Mishna are the same dimensions. There is some evidence which supports this assumption: a) The dimensions of the Temple according to the sources are 100/100/100 cubits. ( Mishna Middot , Ch. 4, Par. 6) Josephus Flavius, Jewish War , Vol. 5, Ch. 5, Par. 8 (hereinafter: War ) b) The difference of the levels between the Priest's Court and the Temple Court was 16 cubits according to the ( Mishna Middot , Ch. B, Par. 3, 4, 6_ and according to J. Flavius ( Wars , Vol 5, Ch. 5, Par. 2) Another assumption is that the temples that are described in the Mishna and in J. Flavius' books are one and the same; Herod's Temple. The evidence which proves this assumption is: 1) Both temples, as described by the Mishna and Josephus Flavius, each possessed a height of 100 cubits and we know that the temple that had existed before Herod was only 60 ama high ( History 15:11:1). 2) The dimensions of the Temple Mount according to the two descriptions were 200 +/- 10%. According to J. Flavius this "ris by ris" which equals 187 m. by 187 m. ( History 11:3). According to the Mishna the dimensions of the Temple Mount were 500 by 500 ama which equals 220 by 220 m. (according to a cubit of 45 cm.) Mishna Middot , Ch. 2. Par. A). But in any case we have to emphasize that there are discrepancies between these two sources, ., the dimensions of the altar and the height of the gates, etc. (see A. Hilliseimer, The Dimensions of Herod's Temple , (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1974, pp. 26-61). 15. Jerusalem Excavations by L. Ch. Warren R. E. 1867-1870, Palestine Exploration Fund. 16. The survey was conducted by Zion Sharon in the year 1990 by the Wailing Wall Heritage Fund. 17. The survey was conducted by Hagai Caspi in the year 1990 at the request of Tuvia Sagiv. 18. Mr. Avi Yona, "The Second Temple," The Book of Jerusalem , (pub. in Hebrew), p. 470. 19. Ben Dov, The Excavation Nearby the Temple Mount , (published in Hebrew). p. 142. 20. 6 cubits between the Women's Court and the Israeli Court ( Medo t, Ch. 2 Par. 5). cubits between the Women's Court and the Israeli Court plus ( Medo t, Ch. 2 Par. 5). cubits between the Israeli Court and the Priest's Court ( Medot , Ch. 2 Par. 6). 6 cubits between the Priest's Court and the level of the temple ( Medot , Ch. 3 Par. 6). ________________________ - cubits 21. Tunnels
B. Mazar, "Excavation and Discoveries," Jerusalem in Herod's Time , (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1986, pp. 16-66. 22. Dating the Tunnels
Vogue, M., Compte de la Temple de Jerusalem , Paris, 1864-65, p. 8. 23. "About the fourth side of the temple walls which face the south, in it there were gates in the center and nearby was the Basilica of the King." ( History , 15:11:5). From the text it is evident that there were no tunnels from the south in order to enter the Temple Mount. "In Western side of the wall there were four gates; one gate to the King's Palace through the valley, two gates to the 'Parbar', and the last gate to the other part of the city and was separated by steps that led down to the valley and then up to the city." ( History 15:11:5). There is no description in this text of a tunnel which could confirm the restoration theories that state that there was a tunnel from the Barclay Gate to the Temple Mount Court. 24. The difference in the levels between the Hulda Gate (+725 m) and the Barclay Gate (+720 m) is 5 m. The distance between the two gates in 100 m, which means that the difference is a 5% gradual slope. The difference between the levels of the Barclay and Warren Gates (+728 m) is 8 m. The distance between them is 150 m which means that the difference is a 5% gradual slope. We have to relate to all the gates as one level. Comparing the gates of the Robinson and Wilson Arch which are at the level of +/-736 m and +/-737 m respectively. 25. War , 5:5:8. 26. War , 6:2:7 27. P. Benior, "The Archeological Restoration of Antonia's Fortress," Antiquities , (pub. in Hebrew), 1963, Vols. 19-20, p. 127. 28 . A. Mazar, "Review About Water Aqueducts to Jerusalem," Ancient Water Aqueducts in Israel , (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem, 1989, p. 187, (hereinafter: A. Mazar, Water Aqueduct ). 29. A. Mazar, Water Aqueduct , p. 188. 30. This is the conclusion of Abaye, a Jewish sage of the 4th century, " What comes out is that the Ein Etam (the spring of Etam) is 23 cubits higher than the Azara." 31. Tosefta Psachim , Ch. 3, Par. 12, "How is the Azara cleaned? Seal the area and let the water from the aqueduct enter till it becomes clean like milk." 32. We have to emphasize that there is no religious commandment which states that the high priest should wash himself in spring water. 33. The translation of the Greek word ____________ means the act of killing the animal and the act of placing the animal on the altar. 34. Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, 20:8:11. 35. War , 5:4:3. 36. See Warren map No. _____. 37. D. Bahat, "Warren's Excavations in Jerusalem," Between Mt. Hermon and the Sinai Desert . 38. War 5:5:8. 39. War 5:4:2. 40. Perhaps the walls of the higher court are the remains of Antonia's Fortress? 41. See Table 5A. War 5:5:8. 42. See Footnote 14. 43. History , 12:9:3. 44. War 5:4:1.
War 5:6:1.
War 5:9:1. 45. Yoram Tzafir, "About the location of the Hakra in Jerusalem." Cathedra , Vol. 14, 1980. pp. 17-40. "Jerusalem through its Generations." The Open University Bulletin , Vol. 2, 1984, p. 124. 46. History , 13:6:7. 47. M. Hecker, "Supplying Water to Jerusalem in Ancient Times." The Book of Jerusalem (pub. in Hebrew), Jerusalem: 1956, p. 210. 48. The survey was conducted I. Magli in the year 1990, at the request of Tuvia Sagiv. 49. Mishna , "Red Cow (Heifer)." Ch. 3, Par. 3.

That ain't going to be easy, though. On top of the team getting all the technology right, space is expensive. And NASA is, by necessity, an exceedingly cautious organization—it didn't put humans on the moon and house them in a $150 billion space station (in fairness to other nations, it's been a group funding effort) by being imprecise. But then again, it doesn't hand out $20 million to just anyone.

Get hands-on with the engineering design process with this media-rich, NGSS-aligned, project-based learning unit for grades 6-8.

Okay, let's begin. You must literally hunch over and scramble your way up this tight passageway, which has a steep 1:2 gradient—45° angle with the plateau. At the top of the passage, you'll arrive at the Grand Gallery.

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